January 20, 2016

Milestones of Language Acquisition

Hi everyone!

I was doing a little research on language acquisition and came across this Table.  (Note. From Language Disorders From Infants Through Adolescence: Assessment and Intervention, by R. Paul, 2001, Philadelphia)
As I read through it I started comparing it to the language levels of the ELD matrix.  It was very interesting to compare native language acquisition according to the below table against second language acquistion by language level.

If you are interested in doing the same here is a link to the ELD matrix.

Table 1 Milestones of Language Content
 Typical Age Content Milestones

8–12 mos. Understand 3–50 words.
First words are used for names of familiar people and objects; communicative games and routines; to talk about appearance,
disappearance, recurrence.

12–18 mos. Average expressive vocabulary size: 50–100 words at 18 mos.
Semantic roles are expressed in one-word speech, including agent, action, object, location, possession, rejection, disappearance, nonexistence, denial.
Words are understood outside of routine games; still need contextual support for lexical comprehension.

18–24 mos. Average expressive vocabulary size: 200–300 words at 24 mos.
Prevalent relations expressed: agent–action, agent–object, action–object, action–location, entity–location, possessor–possession, demonstrative–entity, attribute–entity.

24–30 mos. Understanding and use of questions about objects (What?), people (Who?), and basic events (What is x doing?   Where is x going?).
30–36 mos. Use and understand Why? questions.
Use and understand basic spatial terms (in, on, under, etc.).

36–42 mos. Use and understand semantic relationship between adjacent and conjoined sentences, including additive, temporal, causal, contrastive.
Understand basic color words.  Use and understand basic kinship terms.

42–48 mos. Use and understand ‘‘when’’ and ‘‘how’’ questions.
Understand words for basic shapes (circle, square, triangle).
Use and understand basic size vocabulary (big, small).
Use conjunctions and and because to conjoin sentences.

48–60 mos. Knowledge of letter names and sounds emerges.
Knowledge of numbers and counting emerges.
Use conjunctions when, so, because, and if.

5–7 years Reorganization of lexical knowledge from episodic to semantic networks occurs.
Average expressive vocabulary size: 5,000 words.

7–9 years School introduces new words not encountered in conversation.
Pronouns used anaphorically to refer to nouns previously named.
Word definitions include synonyms and categories.  Some words understood to have multiple meanings.
Capacity for production of figurative language increases.

9–12 years Vocabulary in school texts is more abstract and specific than that in conversation.
Students are expected to acquire new information from written texts.
Can explain relationships between meanings of multiple-meaning words.
Begin using adverbial conjunctions.  Understand most common idioms.

12–14 years Abstract dictionary definitions given for words.
Can explain meaning of proverbs in context.

15–18 years Average vocabulary size of high school graduate: 10,000 words.

Note. From Language Disorders From Infants Through Adolescence: Assessment and Intervention, by R. Paul, 2001, Philadelphia:

Happy Teaching!

January 15, 2016

Friday Freebie

Hello everyone,

Today click here and get this great freebie that students love!

This 18-page Skip Count By 2 Flipbook has interactive flipbooks for students to create and practice counting by 2s. These are engaging books to make as a center activity, or as an extension to your math lesson.

Get your students counting by 2s with this great Skip Count By 2 Flipbook. Students simply color, cut and assemble. Watch your young learners take off counting.

Skip Count By 2 Flipbook can be used during guided math as openers, small group time and math work stations

How to use this book:
• Print on cardstock.
• Cut at the dotted line to separate the base of the flipbook from the picture pages.
• Cut around each rectangle picture box.
• Arrange the number cards one on top of the other and staple or bind the top of all pages to the flipbook base.

This is an engaging way for students to practice their numbers and share their knowledge with family and friends.

January 11, 2016

21 things about ELPA21

Hello everyone! 
This is an old blog post from April of last year, but with ELPA21 upon us, I thought it was worth a re-posting!
Today I would like to welcome April Bryant from Cedar Falls, Iowa...our guest blogger today. 

April has been a classroom teacher since 1997. She has experience K-12 in Bilingual Education, ESL, and Spanish. She is part of the group that field tested ELPA21 across the country and here are her thoughts on the new ELPA21:

 Good afternoon colleagues,
 We were able to successfully administer the pilot ELPA21 to 23 students in 6-8th grades at Central.

We have been using the IELDA proficiency exam for many years.  Therefore, when you see a reference to the ELDA in this post, know that I am comparing the two exams. For more information about the IELDA visit:

Here are my reflections on the administration of the test and its future implications for ELL instruction:
We did not have any hardware issues whatsoever in our lab.  Three of the district techs were present to help with any glitches.  In that regard, this pilot exam was well supported.  Thank you Tech Department for your help!
I highly recommend the USB connected headset/mic combos for anyone giving this test.  They worked well.

2.  Software:
The software opened and functioned as predicted.  Students were able to successfully pause the exam, use the restroom and resume the exam by re-entering login data.  I was also able to use the proctor password to successfully re-enter an exam that had frozen.  So, those facets of the software performed as promised.

3.  One recommendation I would make to the software writers is to consider changing the format of the dual panel displays.  When students had two screens in one… they were confused about how to navigate between views.  If this remains the interface for the exam, we will have to teach this concept to the students before testing next spring.

4.  Listening Exam:
I found the listening exam to be bright and engaging.  I especially like the option to repeat the audio as needed for success.  The questions are well scaffolded so that students are asked to listen for a specific detail.

5.  Writing Exam:
The writing exam is more demanding in comparison to the requirements posed in the ELDA prompts.  However, the prompts are written in a way that really help students with sentence structure.  The required writing is also lengthy.  One of the prompts asked for 3 paragraphs.  Of course, many students were asking how many sentences equal one paragraph….

6. Reading Exam:
The reading exam was the most confusing in terms of use.  This is the section with the dual panel display mentioned earlier in the software section.  I don’t think the reading tasks and questions were an issue; navigating the software in this section was frustrating for students.

7.  Speaking Exam:
The speaking prompts are well done.  They are supported by graphics or video.  Students have the option to record their answers a second time if they do not wish to submit their first attempt.  However, once the choice is made to attempt a second time, the first answer is no longer an option to submit.  So… if you choose to do a second recording… that’s the one that counts.

8.  Administration:
The exam instructions and testing tools are very easy to follow.  There is nothing to read as a proctor.  Once students log in, they are self-sufficient.

9.  Set-up took about 30 minutes.  I logged in to each station, opened the login screen to the exam, and plugged the headsets in at each station prior to students’ arrival.

10.  Once students arrived, they picked up their username and password and went right to work.  Since they had seen the demo it was easy for them to get started on their own. 

11.  I am glad I did the setup ahead of time, some of the students struggled to finish in the 2 hours of allotted time.  (Granted the test won’t be timed, but I had only requested that they miss 2 sections of class)

Instructional Considerations:

12.  Reading:
In my opinion, the reading instruction that is taking place is adequate for success on the test.  However, I did get a few vocabulary questions, so our work with Rule of 3 and our focus on vocabulary will be right on target.

13.  Listening:
In my opinion, students who do not currently have an ELD component in their school day will not be as successful on this part as those who do.  It is one thing to listen to content instruction and complete coursework.  It is another to critically listen for specific details in order to answer comprehension questions.  It would be my recommendation to provide listening comprehension practice matching the test format for ELLs prior to the exam. 

14.  Writing:
The prompts are very specific on the exam.  They require a specified number of details, a certain format and specific lengths.  Students will need practice critically reading these prompts and reflecting on whether or not their writing sample meets the requirements.
Additionally, many of our students are hunt-and-peck typists.  So, additional practice with writing in electronic formats will be crucial to their success on the writing exam.

15.  Speaking:
This part of the exam concerns me most.  The hardware was not an issue.  All of the students were able to record and listen back with no problem.  My reservations come from recorded speech being scored by an outside source.  Many of my students have accents which are understood best by those who spend the most time with them.

I am concerned that these scores will decrease as a result of the new format.  Usually, speaking is a high score for our students helping their composite scores.  However, this new format may change that trend.

In my opinion, my current instructional practice is missing two components that will be crucial to their success on this type of exam.  First, students must have more interaction with recording and critiquing their own voices.  They must be able to play back their responses and reflect on whether or not their response meets the requirements of the prompt.
I believe this will be a strong addition to our instructional routines.  Arrangements will have to be made so that the hardware and software are in place for said instructional practice to occur. 

16.   Additionally,  it is my opinion that we must introduce a pronunciation / phonics component into the ELD instruction in the upper grades.  If we do not provide guided practice and constructive feedback in this area, I fear that student scores will decrease as a result.

17.  I will be looking into best practice for secondary pronunciation/ phonics instruction, but my first thought is Words Their Way for ELLs.  It is a wonderful program for vocabulary, spelling and phonics.  I’d have to come up with a way to work pronunciation drills into it, but I am sure my years as a foreign language teacher will help with that.

18.  Whew, that was a ton of information!  I would welcome the opportunity to read feedback of this nature from some of the other schools as well.

19.  Thanks for the opportunity to participate in the ELPA21 pilot.  I know this experience will have a positive effect on the daily instruction and practice exams in my room for 2015-2016.

20.  What’s new on ELPA21?
Here are some of my observations…
Listening selections similar to ELDA / TELPA
The color graphics add to the experience.

Reading selections:
There are questions on interpreting graphs.
I have not seen this on ELDA / TELPA

There is a cloze activity with a pull down menu of choices… similar to the DAZE exam if you are familiar with it. 

21.  Bells and Whistles!
The test includes the following tools for student success…
highlighter for text 
notepad for tagging text
Students can relisten… relisten… relisten!
X-out tool to visually eliminate answers
full color graphics!

Best Wishes as you and your students prepare to take the ELPA21 next spring! 

April Bryant 
Click on over to April's TPT Store!
Check out April's Blog 
Teacher See Teacher Do

January 8, 2016

Friday Freebie

Hello everyone!
It is Friday and we have a great freebie for you today!
 Tongue Twisters Sample Freebie
Tongue Twisters Pronunciation Made Fun!

This sample freebie from our full Tongue Twister pack 48-page pronunciation unit has everything you need to sample what our full pack offers to teach students the correct pronunciation necessary to be academically successful in English.
The full pack of Tongue Twisters – Pronunciation Made Fun contains 30 traditional tongue twisters to help elementary students master English pronunciation! Wall posters and game cards are provided for your students to practice the sounds of English with these engaging tongue twisters.

Click here for this  great freebie!

In addition, our activities and ideas provide fun and interest so your students learn through hands-on experiences. This unit is ready to go to work for you!
Tongue Twisters – Pronunciation Made Fun has everything you need to teach students the correct pronunciation including black lines for the 30 traditional tongue twisters as wall posters, game/mobile cards and game boards
Each of the 30 tongue twisters has its own wall poster and game card. Practice English pronunciation with fun activities and game boards.


Each tongue twister is printed on an individual wall poster (8 x 11 ½) and game/flash card. Simply copy, cut, and use.

Use this great English pronunciation package for kindergarten through 6th graders. Perfect for second language learners and speech students!

See all our great math and grammar games at www.funtoteach.com.

If you would like more great Tongue Twisters, download our complete pack!

 Click here for this great freebie!

Happy Teaching! 

January 2, 2016

Co-Teaching and ELD Links

Hello everyone!

I just added a few links to sites about co-teaching and ELD.  They are on the left hand side of this blog!  Happy reading and Happy New Year!

January 1, 2016

Friday Freebie!

Hello everyone,
It is Friday and time for a freebie!

Are you ready for a fun and free Venn Diagram with a bit of a twist?  Well here you go!
Click here!

2 Square Venn Diagram - Graphic Organizer
Students use this 2 squared graphic organizer to respond to literature. Compare and contrast 2 characters in a story, 2 different settings, or 2 events. Use this great Venn Diagram before, during and after reading to solidify student comprehension

Graphic organizers are great group or individual work activities as a response to literature during independent reading, interactive
reading, or shared reading.

Graphic Organizers help students develop higher level thinking skills and promote creativity. They are handy tools for classroom use that guide students through the process of organizing information. Graphic organizers make logic out of language and help students summarize and interpret text. Graphic Organizers are excellent tools that promote high-level active thinking in the classroom.

Critical Thinking and Active Learning materials for:

-Reading Comprehension
-Social Studies
-Conflict Resolution

Graphic organizers make content area information more accessible to second language learners. The Venn Diagram can change complex language into language that is comprehensible. This is a perfect visual tool that helps ELLs and all students understand and organize information.

Click here for your freebie!

Happy Teaching!

ESL Games In The Classroom Make Learning ESL Math Fun!

As we implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Math, many teachers are wondering where games fit in. We know that children discov...